A speaker system with two types of drivers (see also COAXIAL)
A speaker system made up of three different types of drivers.
3D Ready devices are capable of transporting, generating or displaying 3D video (depending on the type of the device).
At the time of writing, several different 3D standards and technologies exist, most requiring a 3D Ready television, source (such as a Blu-ray player) and glasses (usually LCD shutter type).
It is essential that all components (such as AV receivers) and cables in the signal path are capable of transporting a 3D signal. The HDMI version 1.4 specification includes provision for full HD 1080p 3D video, therefore a system consisting of HDMI v1.4 devices and cables should be able to handle 3D properly. Some HDMI v1.3 devices and cables may also support 3D but some may only support resolutions up to 1080i). A typical 3D enabled system is shown below.
Note that an AV receiver is not essential for 3D operation, a 3D Ready Blu-ray player could be connected directly to a 3D enabled TV. 3D Ready ’out of the box’ home cinema systems can also be connected directly to a 3D enabled TV.
24 Frames HD
Players with 24 frames/second support render movies as they were originally shot - at 24 frames/second. Conventional DVD players and displays deliver a 25 frame/second picture. This is fine if the material has been shot on video at 25 frames/second, but film uses 24 frames. In the case of DVD, the picture is converted for conventional players and displays, which do not support 24 frames/second playback. This conversion process is lossy and delivers an inferior picture.
The latest high-definition-capable formats, HD-DVD and Blu-Ray, both support High Definition pictures at 24 frames/second from discs which have been directly transferred from the original film print, without conversion. When played back on 24 frames/second compatible displays you get as close to the quality of the original film as is possible.
24 frame/second recordings played back on displays which do not support the format are converted by the player to 25 frames/second, so you’re still able to benefit from High-Definition pictures, albeit at a converted 25 frames/second, instead of the original film’s frame rate.
Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP) This profile defines how high quality audio, stereo or mono can be streamed from one device to another over a Bluetooth connection.
This profile defines how multimedia audio can be streamed from one device to another over a Bluetooth connection (it is also called Bluetooth Audio Streaming)
Android Auto is a smartphone projection standard developed by Google to allow mobile devices running the Android operating system (version 5.0 "Lollipop" and later) to be operated in automobiles through the dashboard's head unit. The standard offers drivers control over GPS mapping/navigation, music playback, SMS, telephony, and web search. It's key feature is hands-free operation through voice commands and is compatible with apps including Google Maps, Google Play Music, MLB at Bat, Spotify, Songza, Stitcher, iHeart Radio, and TuneIn.
The AVCHD format is a digital video camera format, used to record standard and high-definition pictures directly to DVD discs, using efficient "MPEG4 AVC/H.264" data compression.
The lower end of the frequency spectrum, sometimes also known as mid-bass.
The Bass Boost button. It's supposed to be used when you're listening to music at lower volume levels. Remember from above that at low volume levels we don't hear the low end and high end as well. When you engage the Bass Boost button on a system it gives a little EQ boost to the low and high end of the material it's processing.
BBC iPlayer is an Internet-based TV service that allows users to watch BBC channels on-line. iPlayer also offers an on-demand service, through which previously broadcast programmes are available for a limited time. This popular application allows users to watch programmes which they have missed on standard broadcast television. High definition content is also available through iPlayer.
Apart from availability on some cable-TV services, viewing content on iPlayer requires a separate Internet connection (a broadband connection is required for smooth playback). Because of this, a device which offers the iPlayer service requires networking technology and usually connects through a home network router.
iPlayer can be viewed on networked computers (including media centre PCs), on some games consoles such as the Nintendo Wii and Sony Playstation 3, and on some Freesat boxes such as the Humax FoxSat and FoxSat HDR. At the time of writing, the number of Freesat boxes supporting iPlayer is expected to rise and plans are in place to allow iPlayer integration into future Freeview boxes. Some networked televisions may also support iPlayer playback.
When viewed on a PC, the iPlayer service allows some content to be downloaded for later playback on the PC or for transferring to a portable device such as compatible Sony Walkman portable media players.
Visit the BBC iPlayer site here.
Blu-ray is a high-density storage format. With Blu-ray, the capacity of a DVD-sized disc is dramatically increased, with up to 50GB of storage space on a single disc. This provides room for films and programming at superior High Definition resolutions, or for more than five times as much standard DVD programming, on the one disc.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances. This data can be text, photographic or audio. Bluetooth is used mainly in car audio for making and receiving telephone calls.
This unit will be Bluetooth enabled with an optional adapter
CarPlay is a smarter, safer way to use your iPhone in the car. CarPlay takes the things you want to do with your iPhone while driving and puts them on your car�s built-in display. You can get directions, make calls, send and receive messages, and listen to music, all in a way that allows you to stay focused on the road. Just connect your iPhone via USB and go.
Speakers which have two separate drive units (normally a small woofer and tweeter) moving independently. Essentially this gives better high frequency response and hence greater range and clarity.
A selective filter which splits signals into different frequency bands that can be fed independently to separate speakers. A passive crossover filters signals after they have been amplified. An active crossover (more effective and flexible) filters signals before amplification, sending different signals to different amps.
A digital broadcasting system which can offer high quality audio, a huge choice of new and existing stations and can eliminate the noise or interference which traditional analogue broadcasts suffer from. All the popular broadcasters now offer a DAB service, plus a range of new niche, local and national services.
Enables you to remove the car stereo faceplate to deter thieves
DIN E is the German standard of measurement for most in-dash players to enable sets to be fitted in standard slots.
A red indicator blinks on the unit after the faceplate is removed, warning potential thieves
A compression technology commonly used by computer owners to share and store longer video files (such as TV programmes and films) in a small space. DivX files can be burnt onto a CD or DVD disc and played in a compatible player.
DLNA (Digital Living Network Alliance) Certified devices meet standards which ensure compatibility with one another.
For example a DLNA certified multi-room client will be able to access content stored on a DLNA certified NAS (Network-Attached Storage) drive, even if the two were bought separately or are made by different manufacturers.
A multi-channel sound format which is the standard in Europe for DVD and the most used in the world. This format can potentially support any number of channels: mono, stereo, 3 channel surround, 5.1 & 6.1 surround being the ones you will find most.
A DVD player or other source component with a Dolby Digital output will deliver the signal in a format which home cinema amplifiers with built in Dolby Digital decoders can handle.
Visit Dolby Digital online here.
Dolby Digital EX & DPL2x
A multi-channel sound format which is the standard in Europe and the most used in the world. This format can potentially support any number of channels: mono, stereo, 3 channel surround or 5.1 surround being the ones you will find most.
Dolby Digital EX:
Discrete 6.1 variation of Dolby Digital which is decoded from a true, discrete 6.1 Dolby Digital encoded soundtrack - an extra rear centre channel, on top of a 5.1 configuration. Dolby Digital EX decoders are fully compatible with Dolby Digital decoding, too.
Dolby Digital Matrix 6.1:
Dolby Digital which delivers 6.1 sound from a 5.1 Dolby Digital signal, by processing and decoding an additional channel of information from the existing left and right rear channels, for a rear-centre channel.
Dolby Headphones down-converts Dolby Digital 5.1 or 6.1 soundtracks to stereo while processing a realistic simulation of surround sound for stereo headphones.
Dolby Pro Logic:
An older format than Dolby Digital, which provides surround sound from a stereo signal. Although not offering the same level of separation or dynamics that Dolby Digital offers, Pro Logic soundtracks can be heard on a wide variety of pre-recorded videos and television broadcasts. All that you require is a NICAM stereo television or HiFi/NICAM audio VCR to be connected to your AV amplifier and when a Pro Logic programme is broadcast or played back you will be able to enjoy it with the surround sound activated.
Dolby Pro Logic II:
Takes an existing 2 channel stereo sound and decodes a dynamic, full-bandwidth 5.1 soundtrack. A great improvement over original Pro Logic and very popular with both 2 channel sourced movies (e.g. stereo TV broadcasts and video-taped recordings) and music too.
Dolby Pro Logic IIx:
The latest of the Pro Logic formats, IIx is capable of delivering a full-bandwidth, highly dynamic 7.1 surround sound from 2 channel stereo and 5.1 channel sources. 7.1 sound features an additional pair of rear-surround channels, on top of a 5.1 configuration. Dolby Pro Logic IIx decoders are fully compatible with Dolby Pro Logic II and Dolby Pro Logic decoding, too.
Dolby True HD is a system for delivering extremely high-quality multi-channel audio. It takes advantage of the larger capacity afforded by formats such as Blu-Ray and HD-DVD, delivering sound quality which Dolby claim is equal to the studio master recording. It does this using lossless encoding which, unlike many existing formats, ensures that there is no reduction in audio quality. It can support any number of audio channels, although when used on Blu-Ray and HD-DVD discs, is specified to support up to 8 channels (7.1) of digital audio.
Dolby True HD can be carried from a compatible player via an HDMI cable. AV receivers with Dolby TrueHD decoding receive the signal via HDMI, along with the video signal. Such receivers provide the decoding and amplification of the signal, whilst passing the video signal on to the display via an HDMI output.
Dolby TrueHD signals output from a player are backward compatible with AV receivers that feature standard Dolby Digital decoding - you will enjoy the highest quality signal your AV receiver is capable of decoding from a Dolby TrueHD source. In addition, some players feature built-in Dolby True-HD decoders, providing the benefits of superior fidelity with existing AV receivers.
Further reading: Dolby TrueHD web page.
Digital Sound (Signal) Processor. Lets you programme a listening environment pattern and change the sound to suit the music. A type of super equaliser.
DTS 96/24 (96kHz sampling rate - compared to typical 48kHz sampling rate & 24-bit word length). DTS 96/24 decoding delivers superior fidelity audio from suitably encoded DVD discs.
Discrete 6.1 variation of DTS which is decoded from a true, discrete 6.1 DTS encoded soundtrack.
A multi-channel sound format capable of delivering superior sound to that of Dolby Digital. All of the home cinema amplifiers on this site support both Dolby Digital and DTS.
DTS-HD Master Audio
DTS-HD is a system for delivering extremely high-quality multi-channel audio. It takes advantage of the larger capacity afforded by formats such as Blu-Ray and HD-DVD, delivering sound quality which DTS claim is equal to the studio master recording. It does this using lossless encoding which, unlike many existing formats, ensures that there is no reduction in audio quality. It can support any number of audio channels, although when used on Blu-Ray and HD-DVD discs, is specified to support up to 8 channels (7.1) of digital audio.
DTS-HD can be carried from a compatible player via an HDMI cable. AV receivers with DTS-HD decoding receive the signal via HDMI, along with the video signal. Such receivers provide the decoding and amplification of the signal, whilst passing the video signal on to the display via an HDMI output.
DTS-HD signals output from a player are backward compatible with AV receivers that feature standard DTS decoding - you will enjoy the highest quality signal your AV receiver is capable of decoding from a DTS-HD source. In addition, some players feature built-in DTS-HD decoders, providing the benefits of superior fidelity with existing AV receivers.
Further reading: DTS HD web page.
DTS Neo:6 takes an existing 2 channel stereo soundtrack and decodes a dynamic, full-bandwidth 5.1 soundtrack. Ideal with both 2 channel sourced movies (e.g. stereo TV broadcasts and video-taped recordings) and music too.
Equalisation. Each EQ band influences different qualities of a mix or instrument:
- 50-60 Hz = adds thump in a kick drum and boom in a bassline
- 100-200 Hz = adds punch in a snare and richness
- 200-500 Hz = adds warmth and weight in guitars, piano and vocals
- 500-1000 Hz = adds body and tone to many instruments
- 2 kHz = adds clarity, edge and bite to guitars and vocals
- 5-10 kHz = adds clarity, openness and life, especially drum
- 16 kHz = adds air, space or sparkle
enjoy FLAC lossless digital audio files in your vehicle with playback output at CD quality, without the need to convert
Freesat is a digital satellite television and radio service which is available as free-to-air, meaning that there is no need to pay a monthly subscription fee in order to receive Freesat channels.
Unlike Freeview which is a terrestrial service which uses local transmitters, Freesat is broadcast from satellites and therefore has better coverage around the UK than Freeview.
All that is required to receive Freesat services is a Freesat set-top box receiver or a television with integrated Freesat tuner and a compatible satellite dish. Most newer satellite dishes, such as those used to receive Sky Digital, should be able to receive Freesat broadcasts.
A device bearing the above logo is capable of receiving Freesat free-to-air satellite channels, and has added pause, rewind and record functions. While both Freesat and Freesat Plus devices receive the same transmitted signals, Freesat Plus guarantees these extra functions. It also adds extra functionality such as Series Link, recording of an entire series of programmes at the touch of a button, and the ability to record two halves of a programme (for example a film split by the news) as one recording. This is not to say that devices that don’t feature the badge are not capable of some or all of this functionality, the Freesat Plus badge simply guarantees that a device has these functions and is fully Freesat compatible - please check the product’s individual specification.
A device bearing the Freeview Plus logo is capable of receiving standard Freeview (DVB-T: Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial) channels, and has added pause, rewind and record functions. While both Freeview and Freeview Plus devices receive the same transmitted signals, "Freeview Plus" guarantees these recording, pausing and rewind functions. Freeview Plus also adds extra functionality such as Series Link, recording of an entire series of programmes at the touch of a button, and the ability to record two halves of a programme (for example a film split by the news) as one recording. This is not to say that devices that don’t feature the badge are not capable of some or all of this functionality - please check the product’s individual specification.
Cost: Apart from the initial purchase cost there is nothing further to pay: no subscription fee is required.
EPG: Electronic Programme Guide. A system which delivers detailed programme listings, now and next and other schedule information. Freeview Plus EPGs must cover at least the next 8 days television and also allow for easy one-touch recording and scheduling.
Hard Disc: Freeview Plus devices use a hard disc for storage. This is used to store your recordings for later watching, and for temporary storage whilst pausing and rewinding live TV. The larger the hard disc capacity, the more content you can record.
One Touch Recording/Scheduling: Allows the recording of a programme to be started instantly by pressing the record button on the remote control. Future programmes can easily be scheduled by pressing the record button whilst the programme is highlighted in the EPG schedule listings.
Pause Live TV: Allows you to pause live TV and resume it at a later time. This is achieved by temporarily recording the television broadcast for the pause period. After pausing, playback will continue normally.
Rewind Live TV: Allows you to rewind a television programme which you have been watching. Freeview Plus devices automatically record television content as you watch it, allowing you to instantly skip back through the recording and continue watching without any break in the flow of the programme.
For more information visit the Freeview Plus website.
A car audio system's frequency response represents how much of the audible frequency spectrum it can reproduce. The frequency response of a car audio system can be measured by an instrument known as a real-time analyzer (RTA), which consists of a microphone attached to a processor with a display that has a graph that shows a system's response.
Degree of signal amplification, achieved by an amp, tuner or pre-amp circuit. Expressed in decibels (dB)
GuidePlus is a free, interactive, electronic programme guide (EPG) which is found on many televisions, DVD recorders, Personal Video Recorders (PVRs) and VCRs. It displays up to seven days of programme listings, with titles and programme details, for analogue, digital terrestrial (DVB-T), cable and satellite television networks.
With GuidePLUS you can search for programmes by genre (eg "Sports" or "Movies") or title, search the listings using keywords entered via the on-screen keyboard, use it as an easy way to highlight programmes for timer recording on GuidePLUS recorders and also set it to show your favourite programmes, according to your own defined parameters.
A device which displays this logo is capable of supporting the picture resolution and wider bandwidth required for High Definition pictures.
In the case of a display such as a plasma or LCD television, this will mean that the screen has the resolution (the level of image detail) to render High Definition images properly. Some screens are merely High Definition compatible - this means that they will accept a high definition signal, but only render the picture in standard definition. This is not the same as HD ready. If you are looking for future-proofing and the best picture, your screen should be "HD Ready".
Source devices such as DVD players with the logo will deliver a High Definition resolution image, usually by upscaling standard definition images to the better format. Other sources of High Definition programming include the BBC’s service & Sky’s subscription services, both currently available via satellite, while in the future, High Definition will be available via the new digital TV platform, "Freeview" and from "Blu-ray" disc players.
Devices such as AV receivers can also be "High Definition Ready" if they have video switching which supports the increased bandwidth required to carry a high definition signal (typically via HDMI or component video connections)
Component video is a picture signal format. Component video inputs are most commonly found on plasma, LCD screens and projectors as the format supports a high-bandwidth, suitable for High-Definition signals.
HDMI: High Definition Multimedia Interface. The HDMI connector is a digital interface which has global backing as the universal digital connector for home entertainment products. Capable of carrying a very large data rate, it is ideal for the latest generation of High-Definition sources and displays, it can carry picture, sound and other information between the latest generation of DVD players, plasma screens, computers and more - with the best performance yet.
High Definition Compatible Digital. A further enhancement of the CD format, HDCD enables a higher resolution to be stored on a normal compact disc. When played in a compatible CD player, HDCD recordings sound cleaner, have a greater dynamic range and deliver a more impressive frequency response. There are 1000s of titles available.
HDCD recordings will play perfectly well on normal CD players, but you gain the performance benefits by loading them into an HDCD compatible player.
Amplifiers which bear the HDCD logo have built-in HDCD decoding, enabling a compatible CD player to be linked directly to the amplifier via a digital connection, facilitating the use of the amplifier’s built-in HDCD decoding.
High Definition Multimedia Interface - the new Scart. The HDMI connector is a digital interface which has global backing as the universal digital connector for home entertainment products. Capable of carrying a very large amount of data, it can work for picture, sound and other information between the latest generation of DVD players, plasma & LCD screens, computers and more - with the best performance yet.
Several different versions of HDMI exist so it is important to check the version supported by both your electronics and the cable used. All versions can carry high definition video with resolutions up to 1080p and some multi-channel audio formats
Version 1.3 or higher is required for bitstream (encoded) transport of high definition, lossless audio formats such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio (such as from a Blu-ray player to an AV receiver).
Version 1.4 adds Ethernet networking between two compatible devices, and an audio return channel allowing two-way audio transport (ideal for carrying video from an AV receiver to a flatscreen TV and simultaneously carrying the audio from the TV to the AV receiver). Version 1.4 also adds support for future 3D applications and resolutions higher than 1080p. High speed version 1.3 cables (supporting bandwidths up to 10.2Gbps) will support all the features in the version 1.4 specification except for Ethernet networking.
Note that devices supporting a particular version of HDMI may not necessarily implement all the available features. For example, an AV receiver with HDMI v1.4, may not use Ethernet networking. Please check the specification of your devices to be certain of its supported features.
Further reading: http://www.hdmi.org
Unit of measurement for frequency, oftem written as Hz or kHz
High Level Input
An input configured to accept speaker level signals
Impedance is a measure of something that opposes/restricts the flow of current in an electrical circuit. In this case, that something is a speaker.
Boosts low frequencies. Useful at low volumes but most loudness circuits can cut off an unacceptable amount of treble.
Made for iPod
Devices carrying this logo have been certified by the developers to have been specifically designed to work with Apple iPods and to meet Apple’s performance standards. This is a guarantee of iPod compatibility for the device’s iPod dock connector.
Please be aware that this logo does not necessarily guarantee compatibility with all iPod models. Please check the product’s specification for more details of compatibility with specific models of iPod.
Medium Density Fibreboard. Used for building bass enclosures, door panels etc.
As the name suggests, frequencies in the middle of the frequency range.
To protect its own interests, enable the staggering of film release dates and to protect local copyright holders, the film industry and DVD manufacturers have divided the world into six DVD regions. The concept is that a DVD player bought in England (region 2) will not play a DVD disc bought in America (region 1), for example. However, this has proved very unpopular and as a result, we offer many of our DVD players as "MULTI-REGION", overriding the regional limitation otherwise built-in to DVD players and allowing you to play discs from other regions.
This is achieved via a simple software modification (without removing the player’s cover or making any sort of mechanical change) and is perfectly legal. The same guarantee applies to our "MULTI-REGION" players as is normal.
The world’s DVD regions are:
(1) USA and Canada (2) Europe, Middle East, Japan and South Africa (3) South East Asia (4) South America and Australia (5) Africa, Most of Asia and Russia (6) China.
A measurement used of how much the flow of electricity is restricted or impeded. The higher the measurement the higher the resistance.
If the port length and diameter is correctly matched to the box volume and subwoofer's characteristics it will greatly increase efficiency and a good ported box offers lower distortion.
Holds controls for volume, bass and treble but has no on-board amplification.
A pre-amp output (pre-out) on a head unit allows the addition of an amp or other peripherals when system building.
Stations which can be held in a tuners memory for instant recall.
An enhancement to RDS which offers scrolling text information from the broadcaster. This can include current programme details, the track title being played, traffic news - whatever they decide to offer.
For more information about RDS, click here
An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals. The name "RCA" derives from the Radio Corporation of America, which introduced the design by the early 1940s for internal connection of the pickup to the chassis in home radio-phonograph consoles.
Imagine a system of teletext for radio. R.D.S. tuners give extra information about FM broadcasts including: station naming, radio text (which stations can use to label individual tracks or let you know which programme is on), correct time, traffic announcement (which will interrupt a national broadcast with a local programme’s traffic report) and more.
PTY = Programme type (e.g. Classic, Pop, Rock, News, Current Affairs, Sports), CT = Clock time, PS = Programme Service (e.g. BBC Radio 4, Virgin), EON = Enhanced Other Networks (including TA = Traffic Announcement), RT = Radio Text
For more information about RDS, click here.
Root Mean Square. "RMS power" is sometimes used in the audio industry as a synonym for "mean power" or "average power".
Stands for Super Audio Compact Disc. An audio format which delivers a much higher resolution then that of standard CD and a more "live" sound. The format also supports multi-channel sound and is therefore considered a large improvement on standard CD.
Secure Digital or (SD) is a memory card format for use in portable devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, sat nav units, tablet computers & more recently car stereo units.
The sound pressure level a speaker produces when fed by a given input power, measured at a specific distance on axis directly in front of the speaker. Typically specified in dB SPL at 1 meter with 1 watt of input signal
Sound Pressure Level. Monitored using pro kit and measured in decibels - basically the amount of volume produced.
Large speakers designed to produce the low frequencies, designed to be used in a cabinet, tube or free-air application.
THX was founded by film-maker George Lucas to address standards in cinema design and performance. THX Select is a certification of hardware performance, as defined by the company. Certified products are guaranteed to meet certain stringent performance and specification criteria, as well as offering custom THX decoding modes and bass management for movies and music.
Reproduce the higher frequencies (treble), they are generally fairly small.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices & more recently car audio products. You can play back your saved music or video content in many formats such as mp3, wma, aac, divx, avi.
WiFi Networking refers to a type of wireless connectivity which allows devices to connect to computer networks. Devices with wireless networking may connect to home networks with wireless functionality, usually provided by a wireless router or modem.
Wireless devices such as WiFi radios or AV receivers may support media streaming from compatible media servers and computers and/or connect to the internet to receive internet radio stations. The two most common media streaming systems are DLNA and uPnP. Two devices with same system should be able to share media without problems.
Some wireless devices such as media centre PCs and games consoles may also feature advanced web browsing and email functionality.
In the case of speakers and some wireless audio systems, wireless technology is sometimes used to remove the need for speaker cable, usually for the rear speakers in a home cinema system, or to allow multi-room applications. These wireless audio systems do not usually connect to home networks and therefore do not have media streaming or Internet functionality.
WMA stands for Windows Media Audio and, like MP3, is an audio compression technology used to squeeze more soundtrack in to a smaller space compared with, for instance, compact disc.
DVD Players which display the "Plays Windows Media" badge offer replay of discs burned with files which use the "WMA" file extension.
WMA is also the first digital surround sound coding technology for the web, according to Microsoft.
Amplifiers which bear the "Plays Windows Media" badge will decode the format from compatible sources (such as a multi-channel-equipped PC), delivering high resolution stereo or 5.1-channel surround audio at compression rates between 128 & 768 Kbps. At any given bit rate, 5-channel "WMA9 Pro" is claimed to bring higher fidelity than many other sound compression technologies.
This unit will work with your iPhone with either an optional cable or the white USB cable which came bundled with your iPhone.